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edReportReplyRetractionShortNoteStudyProtocolSystematicReviewTechnicalNoteTutorialViewpoint  AdvancedSearch SectionSpecialIssueVolumeIssueNumberPe LogicalOperatorOperatorANDORSearchTextSearchTypeAllfieldsTitleAbstractKeywordsAuthorsAffiliationsDoiFullTextReferences add_circle_outlineremove_circle_outline  SustainabilityFormation,Characteristics,andInfluencingFactorsofthePlastisphereBiomedicinesTheInfluenceofCross-ReactiveTCellsinCOVID-19SensorsHardSyDR:ABenchmarkingEnvironmentforGNSSAlgorithmsMicromachinesAReviewonMachiningSiCp/AlCompositeMaterialsRecentArticles 16pes,311KiB OpenAccessArticleNovelEstimationsofHadamard-TypeIntegralInequalitiesforRaina’sFractionalOperatorsbyMerveCoşkun,ÇetinYildizandLuminiţa-IoanaCotîrlăFractalFract.2024,8(5),302;doi.org/10.3390/fractalfract-20May2024AbstractInthepresentpaper,utilizingawideclassoffractionalintegraloperators(namelytheRainafractionaloperator),wedevelopnovelfractionalintegralinequalitiesoftheHermite–Hadamardtype.Withthehelpofthewell-knownRiemann–Liouvillefractionaloperators,s-typeconvexfunctionsarederivedusing[...]Readmore.Inthepresentpaper,utilizingawideclassoffractionalintegraloperators(namelytheRainafractionaloperator),wedevelopnovelfractionalintegralinequalitiesoftheHermite–Hadamardtype.Withthehelpofthewell-knownRiemann–Liouvillefractionaloperators,s-typeconvexfunctionsarederivedusingtheimportantresults.Wealsonotethatsomeoftheconclusionsofthisstudyaremorereasonablethanthosefoundundercertainspecificconditions,e.g.,s=1,λ=α, σ(0)=1,andw=0.Inconclusion,themethodologydescribedinthisarticleisexpectedtostimulatefurtherresearchinthisarea.Fullarticle(ThisarticlebelongstotheSpecialIssueFractionalIntegralInequalitiesandApplications,2ndEdition)32pes,KiB OpenAccessArticleTheChallengesofBloodSampleDeliveryviaDronesinUrbanEnvironment:AFeasibilityStudythroughSpecificOperationRiskAssessmentMethodologybySaraMolinari,RiccardoPatriarcaandMarcoDucciDrones2024,8(5),210;doi.org/10.3390/drones-20May2024AbstractInrecentyears,UnmannedAircraftSystem(UAS)useinthemedicalsectorasanalternativetotraditionalmeansofgoodstransporthasgrownsignificantly.EventhoughthereducedresponsetimeachievedwithUASscanbelifesingincriticalsituations,theirusemustcomply[...]Readmore.Inrecentyears,UnmannedAircraftSystem(UAS)useinthemedicalsectorasanalternativetotraditionalmeansofgoodstransporthasgrownsignificantly.EventhoughthereducedresponsetimeachievedwithUASscanbelifesingincriticalsituations,theirusemustcomplywithtechnologicalconstraintssuchasrange,speedandcapacity,whileminimizingpotentialrisks.Inthispaper,thefeasibilityofadroneoperationdedicatedtothetransportofbloodsamplesinanurbanareaisstudiedthroughasafetyriskanalysis.TheassessmentutilizestheSpecificOperationRiskAssessment(SORA)framework,inlinewithcurrentEuropeanregulations,andextendsittodefineflighttrajectorieswithminimalrisk.AcasestudyintheHelsinkiurbanareaisusedasareference,withanexemplarycaseofcommercialdronetransportationofbloodsamplesbetweentheTöölöandMalmiHospitals.Byleveringthedroneperformancecapabilitiesandminimizingtheriskforpeopleontheground,thisapproachdemonstratesthatmedicaldeliveryusingdronesindenselypopulatedurbanenvironmentsremainschallenging.Nonetheless,itarguesthattheproposedmethodcanenhanceriskawarenessandsupporttheplanningoffeasibleoperations.Fullarticle(ThisarticlebelongstotheSpecialIssueFlightControlandCollisionoidanceofUs)9658;9660;ShowFiguresFigure1Figure2---Figure3---Figure4---Figure5---Figure6---Figure7---Figure8---Figure9---FigureA1---FigureA1Cont.---FigureA1Cont.---FigureA2---FigureA2Cont.---FigureA2Cont.22pes,299KiB OpenAccessArticleAnInternationalData-BasedSystemsencyIDA:StrivingforaPeaceful,Sustainable,andHumanRights-BasedFuturebyPeterG.KirchschlaegerPhilosophies2024,9(3),73;doi.org/10.3390/philosophies-20May2024AbstractDigitaltransformationand“artificialintelligence(AI)”—whichcanmoreadequatelybecalled“data-basedsystems(DS)”—compriseethicalopportunitiesandrisks.Therefore,itisnecessarytoidentifypreciselyethicalopportunitiesandrisksinordertobeabletobenefitsustainablyfromtheopportunitiesandtomaster[...]Readmore.Digitaltransformationand“artificialintelligence(AI)”—whichcanmoreadequatelybecalled“data-basedsystems(DS)”—compriseethicalopportunitiesandrisks.Therefore,itisnecessarytoidentifypreciselyethicalopportunitiesandrisksinordertobeabletobenefitsustainablyfromtheopportunitiesandtomastertherisks.TheUNGeneralAssemblyhasrecentlyadoptedaresolutionaimingfor‘safe,secureandtrustworthyartificialintelligencesystems’.ItisnowurgenttoimplementandbuildontheUNGeneralAssemblyResolution.Allowinghumansandtheplanettoflourishsustainablyinpeaceandguaranteeinggloballythathumandignityisrespectednotonlyofflinebutalsoonline,inthedigitalsphere,andinthedomainofDS,requirestwopolicymeasures:(1)humanrights-baseddata-basedsystems(HRBDS):HRBDSmeansthathumanrightsserveasthebasisofdigitaltransformationandDS.(2)InternationalData-BasedSystemsency(IDA):IDAshouldbeestablishedattheUNasaplatformforcooperationinthefieldofdigitaltransformationandDS,fosteringhumanrights,security,andpeacefulusesofDS,aswellasaglobalsupervisoryinstitutionandregulatoryauthorityindigitaltransformationandDS.TheestablishmentofIDAisrealisticbecausehumanityhasalreadyshowninitspastthatweareabletonotalways“blindly”pursuethetechnicallypossiblebutalsotolimitourselvestowhatistechnicallyfeasiblewhenhumanityandtheplanetareatstake.Forinstance,humansresearchedthefieldofnucleartechnology,developedtheatomicbomb,anddetonateditseveraltimes.Nonetheless,thesamehumanslimitedresearchanddevelopmentinthefieldofnucleartechnologytopreventevenworseconsequencesbyestablishingtheInternationalAtomicEnergyency(IAEA)attheUN.Fullarticle(ThisarticlebelongstotheSpecialIssueTheEthicsofModernandEmergingTechnology)33pes,KiB OpenAccessFeaturePaperArticleTheNecessityandGoodnessofAnimalsinSijist257;n299;’sKashfAl-Ma7717;j363;bbyPeterAdamsonandHanifAminBeidokhtiPhilosophies2024,9(3),72;doi.org/10.3390/philosophies-20May2024AbstractTheNeoplatonicnotionof“emanation”impliesarequiredprogressionthroughhierarchicalstes,originatingfromthehighestprinciple(theOneorGod)andcascadingdownthroughaseriesofprinciples.Whilethisprocessisdeemednecessary,itisalsoinherentlygood,even“choiceworthy”,aligning[...]Readmore.TheNeoplatonicnotionof“emanation”impliesarequiredprogressionthroughhierarchicalstes,originatingfromthehighestprinciple(theOneorGod)andcascadingdownthroughaseriesofprinciples.Whilethisprocessisdeemednecessary,itisalsoinherentlygood,even“choiceworthy”,aligningwiththeidentificationofthefirstprinciplewiththeGood.Plotinus,aprominentNeoplatonist,emphasizesthebeautyandgoodnessofthesensibleworld,governedbydivineprovidence.Thisperspective,transmittedthroughArabicadaptationsofPlotinus,influencesIslamicphilosopherstoo.ThispaperdelvesintothethoughtoftheIsm257;703;299;l299;philosopherAb363;Ya703;q363;bal-Sijist257;n299;(d.after.349/971),exploringtheinterplayofnecessityandgoodnessinhiscosmology,withafocusonnon-humananimals.Sijist257;n299;’sPersianUncoveringtheVeiledprovidesauniqueperspectiveonanimals,presentingthemasbothnecessaryunfoldingsoftheuniversalintellectandinherentlygoodbeingswithintrinsicvalue.ThepaperconcludeswithanappendixfeaturinganimprovededitionandEnglishtranslationofrelevantpasses.Fullarticle(ThisarticlebelongstotheSpecialIssueAncientandMedievalTheoriesofSoul)9658;9660;ShowFiguresFigure115pes,257KiB OpenAccessArticleMakingtheMemoryBook:War-TimeLossandMemorializationthroughEphemerabyBruceScatesGenealogy2024,8(2),64;doi.org/10.3390/genealogy-20May2024AbstractThisarticleexploresthewayafamilyfashionedamemorialtoason‘takenbythewar’.ItfocusesontheRobert’scollectioninMelbourne,Australia’slargestboundcollectionofwartimeephemera,andthemakingofwhatwascalled‘Frank’sMemoryBook’.[...]Readmore.Thisarticleexploresthewayafamilyfashionedamemorialtoason‘takenbythewar’.ItfocusesontheRobert’scollectioninMelbourne,Australia’slargestboundcollectionofwartimeephemera,andthemakingofwhatwascalled‘Frank’sMemoryBook’.Itarguesthatfamiliesassertedownershipovertheirdead,craftingdifferentmodesofmemorializationtoauthorizedmodesofremembrance,considersthewaycommunitiesofmournerswerebroughttogetherandhighlightstensionsbetweenprivatelossandpublicmemory.Themakingofephemeraisexaminedatlengthasisthepartmaterialcultureplaysinlibrariesandarchives.Fullarticle(ThisarticlebelongstotheSpecialIssueWartimeEphemeraandtheTransmissionofDiverseFamilyandCommunityHistories)16pes,240KiB OpenAccessArticleAdoptionintheEraofSecrecy:PracticalandEthicalChallengesFacingAdultAdopteesintheSearchforBirthFamiliesbyPatriciaRobinsonGenealogy2024,8(2),63;doi.org/10.3390/genealogy-20May2024AbstractThisarticleexploresfindingsfromresearchintotheimpactofadoptionthroughoutthelifecourseofadultswhowereadoptedintheeraofsecrecy,the1940s–1970s.Anarrativeapproachwasusedtoexploretheirreflections,andsemi-structuredinterviewswereundertakenwith11[...]Readmore.Thisarticleexploresfindingsfromresearchintotheimpactofadoptionthroughoutthelifecourseofadultswhowereadoptedintheeraofsecrecy,the1940s–1970s.Anarrativeapproachwasusedtoexploretheirreflections,andsemi-structuredinterviewswereundertakenwith11adults.ThefindingswerethenanalysedthroughthelensoftheLifeCoursePerspective.Previousstudiesonadoptionhelargelyexploredtheoutcomesofsearchingforbirthfamilymembers,butfewhefocusedonhowadopteeswentaboutthis,thechallengestheyencountered,thedecisionsmadeandwhathappenedastheybegantodismantlelayersofsecrecysurroundingtheiradoption.Formostoftheparticipants,resourcessuchasgenealogicalwebsitesandparticularguidancewerenotailableatthetimetheyweresearchingforbirthinformationorattemptingtomakecontactwithbirthfamilies.Theiraccountshighlightedhowsocialworkerswithpotentialbirthinformationdidnotappeartobeabletoconsiderthebroaderemotionalimpactthismightentailforadoptees.Initialmeetingsweredescribedbysomeadopteesashurdlestobeovercome,andlittlebirthinformationwasgiven.Somecontinuedtosearchforbirthrelativeswithoutsupport,usingrandommethodstogaincontact.Thewaysinwhichadultswentabouttheirsearchsometimesappearedtosuggestalackofconsiderationorawarenessontheirpartofthepossibleimpactonothersinvolved.Inreality,theywerefacedwithobstaclesandbarriersastheyattemptedtolearnabouttheirorigins.Theirstoriesprovideavaluableinsightintohowadultadopteessoughttodismantlelayersofsecrecy,highlightingthecomplex,challengingandisolatedsituationtheyfoundthemselvesinastheysearchedforbirthinformationandbirthfamilies,aswellastheethicalchallengesanddilemmastheyhadtonegotiateinordertodoso.Fullarticle(ThisarticlebelongstotheSpecialIssueEthicsandFamilyHistory:Challenges,DilemmasandResponsibilities)attachmentSupplementarymaterial:SupplementaryFile1(ZIP,1040KiB)14pes,1413KiB OpenAccessArticleGeneticMappingforLeafShapeandLeafSizeinNon-HeadingChineseCabbebyaRILPopulationbyTianziZhao,AimeiBai,XinyaWang,FeixueZhang,MiaomiaoYang,YuhuiWang,TongkunLiu,XilinHouandYingLiHorticulturae2024,10(5),529;doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae-20May2024AbstractLeesarethepredominantphotosyntheticandedibleorgansinnon-headingChinesecabbe(Brassicacampestrisssp.chinensis,NHCC),contributingsignificantlytoyield,appearance,anddesirabilitytoconsumers.However,thegeneticbasisofleafshapeandsizeinnon-headingChinesecabberemainsunclear.[...]Readmore.Leesarethepredominantphotosyntheticandedibleorgansinnon-headingChinesecabbe(Brassicacampestrisssp.chinensis,NHCC),contributingsignificantlytoyield,appearance,anddesirabilitytoconsumers.However,thegeneticbasisofleafshapeandsizeinnon-headingChinesecabberemainsunclear.Inthisstudy,wedevelopedaRILpopulationusing‘Maertou’,withslenderleesandnarrowpetioles,and‘Suzhouqing’,withovalleesandwidepetioles,toconstructageneticlinkemapanddetectQTLs.ToobtainstableandreliableQTLs,the11leaf-relatedtraits,includingtheleaflength,leafwidth,andfreshweightofthelaminaandpetioleandthethicknessofpetiolewasobservedontwolocations—whiletheleafshape,petioleshape,indexoflamina/petiolelength,andindexofpetiolefreshweightwerecalculatedbasedon7leaf-relatedtraits.QTLmappingillustratedthatatotalof27QTLsforleaf-relatedtraitswerepreliminarilydetected.Thecandidategeneswereannotatedandseveralgenesinvolvedinleafdevelopmentandleafshapeappearedintheoverlappingregionsofmultipleloci,suchasKRP2,GRF4,ARGOS,andSAUR9.ThisstudylaysthefoundationforfurtherexplorationofthegeneticmechanismsanddevelopmentofeffectivemolecularmarkersforleafshapeandsizeinNHCC.Fullarticle(ThisarticlebelongstotheSectionVegetableProductionSystems)9658;9660;ShowFiguresFigure1Figure2---Figure3---Figure4---Figure5attachmentSupplementarymaterial:SupplementaryFile1(ZIP,8419KiB)24pes,3846KiB OpenAccessFeaturePaperArticleInsightsintoMedievalGrapeCultivationinAl-Andalus:Morphometric,Domestication,andMultivariateAnalysisofVitisviniferaSeedTypesbyJierValera,DiegoRivera,GonzaloMatilla-Séiquer,DiegoJoséRivera-Obón,Carlos-AlvarOcete,RafaelOcete,JulioNarro,PedroJiménez,RafaelGonzález,JuanAntonioRamírez,JoséMaríaMoreno,JoséJierMartínezandConcepciónObónHorticulturae2024,10(5),530;doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae-20May2024AbstractUnderstandingtheoriginsandevolutionofmoderngrapevinevarietiesintheIberianPeninsulaandwesternEuropenecessitatesanexaminationoftheproportionsofVitisviniferacultivars,theirrelationshipswithwildgrapevinepopulations,andtheutilizationofseedlesscultivarsinal-Andalus.Employingmorphometricstudies,[...]Readmore.UnderstandingtheoriginsandevolutionofmoderngrapevinevarietiesintheIberianPeninsulaandwesternEuropenecessitatesanexaminationoftheproportionsofVitisviniferacultivars,theirrelationshipswithwildgrapevinepopulations,andtheutilizationofseedlesscultivarsinal-Andalus.Employingmorphometricstudies,domesticationindices,multivariateanalysis,andBayesianhypothesistesting,thisstudyinvestigatesseveraldistinctseedtypesidentifiedinmaterialsfromRomanandmedievaldeposits.Theseseedsexhibitaspectrumfromhighlydomesticatedtopurelywild.OurfindingsrevealthepredominanceofProlesOccidentalisNegrul,andthepresenceofferal-likegrapevinesassociatedwithProles Euphratica.Additionally,weobservethecontinuouspresenceofwildgrapevinesrelatedtoVitissylvestrisCCGmelinthroughoutthestudiedperiod.Seedsexhibitingintermediatecharacteristicsaredocumented,alongsidetheidentificationof“stenosperms”,suggestinganomaliesinseedformation.Notably,thepresenceofVitisviniferaraisins“stenospermocarpics”ofthesultanatypeissuggested,potentiallyelucidatingtheabsenceoftablegrapesandraisinsoftheProlesOrientalisNegrulinthearchaeologicalrecord,despitefrequentmentionsbymedievalronomywritersfromal-Andalus.Fullarticle(ThisarticlebelongstotheSectionViticulture)14pes,1673KiB OpenAccessArticleEffectofMentholTreatmentontheSproutingandQualityofPotatoTuberbyYeXu,YangQin,QianqianHou,DefuNiuandQingminChenHorticulturae2024,10(5),528;doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae-20May2024AbstractThisstudyusedDutchpotatoesattheendofdormancyasamaterialtoexploretheimpactofmenthol(0.2and0.5g/kgbasedonpotatomass)treatmentonsproutinginhibitionandpotatoquality.Thefindingsrevealedthatamentholconcentrationof0.5[...]Readmore.ThisstudyusedDutchpotatoesattheendofdormancyasamaterialtoexploretheimpactofmenthol(0.2and0.5g/kgbasedonpotatomass)treatmentonsproutinginhibitionandpotatoquality.Thefindingsrevealedthatamentholconcentrationof0.5g/kgeffectivelyinhibitedpotatotubersproutingandsignificantlyreducedglucosidealkaloidproduction.Afterastoreperiodof15days,thesproutingpercenteandglucosidealkaloidcontentofpotatoestreatedwith0.5g/kgmentholwereobservedtobesignificantlylowerat4.17%and68.63mg/kg,respectively,comparedtothecontrolgroupwhichexhibitedvaluesof100%and282.01mg/kg,respectively(p<0.05).Throughoutthestoreperiod,0.5g/kgofmentholpromotedrespiration,reducedmalondialdehydeproductioninpotatoes,inhibitedpolyphenoloxidaseactivity,andsloweddowntissuebrowning.Additionally,itmitigatedthedeclineinstarchandsolubleproteincontent,inhibitingtheaccumulationofreducingsugars.Fullarticle(ThisarticlebelongstotheSpecialIssuePostharvestPhysiologyandQualityMaintainingofHorticulturalPlants)9658;9660;ShowFiguresFigure1Figure2---Figure3---Figure4---Figure5---Figure616pes,1159KiB OpenAccessArticleBigelMatrixLoadedwithProbioticBacteriaandPrebioticDietaryFibersfromBerryPomaceSuitablefortheDevelopmentofProbioticButterSpreadProductbyLauraTamašauskaitė,VidmantėMinelgaitė,AušraŠipailienė,RimantėVinauskienė,ViktorijaEisinaitėandDaivaLeskauskaitėGels2024,10(5),349;doi.org/10.3390/gels-20May2024AbstractThisstudypresentsanovelapproachtodevelopingaprobioticbutterspreadproduct.Weevaluatedtheprebioticactivityofsolubledietaryfibersextractedfromcranberryandseabuckthornberrypomacewithdifferentprobioticstrains(Limosilactobacillusreuteri,Lacticaseibacillusparacasei,andLactiplantibacillus[...]Readmore.Thisstudypresentsanovelapproachtodevelopingaprobioticbutterspreadproduct.Weevaluatedtheprebioticactivityofsolubledietaryfibersextractedfromcranberryandseabuckthornberrypomacewithdifferentprobioticstrains(Limosilactobacillusreuteri,Lacticaseibacillusparacasei,andLactiplantibacillusplantarum),uploadedselectedcompatiblecombinationinthebigelmatrix,andapplieditintheprobioticbutterspreadformulation.Bigelsandproductswerecharacterizedbyphysicalstability,rheological,texturalproperties,andviabilityofprobioticsduringstoreatdifferentconditions.Thehighestprebioticactivityscorewasobservedinsolublecranberry(1.214±0.029)andseabuckthorn(1.035±0.009)fiberswhencultivatedwithL.reuteri.Thebigelsloadedwithprobioticsandprebioticfiberexhibitedasignificantincreaseinviscosity(higherconsistencycoefficient40–45Pa·sn)andbetterprobioticviability(>6logCFU/g)duringlong-termstoreat+4°Ctemperature,surpassingthebigelsloadedwithprobioticsalone.Bigelsstoredatalowertemperature(−18°C)maintainedhighbacterialviability(above8.5logCFU/g).Thebutterspreadenrichedwiththebigelmatrixwassofter(7.6–14.2N),indicatingimprovedspreadability.Thebutterspreadproductconsistentlymettherequired6logCFU/gforafunctionalprobioticfoodproductuntil60daysofstoreat+4°Ctemperature.Thebutterstoredat−18°Cremainedprobioticthroughouttheentirestoreperiod,confirmingtheprotectiveeffectofthebigelmatrix.Thestudy’sresultsshowedthepotentialofthebigeltoco-encapsulate,protect,anddeliverprobioticsduringprolongedstoreunderdifferentconditions.Fullarticle(ThisarticlebelongstotheSpecialIssueRecentAdvancesinFoodGels)9658;9660;ShowFiguresGraphicalabstract18pes,409KiB OpenAccessArticleFinancialLiteracy:ACaseStudyforPortugalbyLuísAlmeida,JoãoChanocaandFernandoTaresJ.RiskFinancialMan.2024,17(5),215;doi.org/10.3390/jrfm-20May2024AbstractThisworkaimsatunderstandingtheleveloffinancialliteracyinPortugal,identifyingthedeterminantsoffinancialliteracyinthePortuguesepopulation,takingasanexamplecertainsociodemographicfactorssuchasgenderande.Theaimistounderstandwhetherthereisa[...]Readmore.ThisworkaimsatunderstandingtheleveloffinancialliteracyinPortugal,identifyingthedeterminantsoffinancialliteracyinthePortuguesepopulation,takingasanexamplecertainsociodemographicfactorssuchasgenderande.Theaimistounderstandwhetherthereisahighlevelofadherencetofinancialliteracyprogramsandinitiatives,aswellastheimpactoffinancialknowledgevariablesonthefinancialliteracyofthePortuguesepopulation.Themethodologyusedwasquantitativeandbasedonaquestionnairesurvey.Thesampleconsistedof600individuals,allover18yearsold.Itwasconcludedthatindividualsinthe26to35egrouphadthebestknowledgeandthatthissampleshowedbetterknowledgeofinterestratescomparedtoinflationandrisk.TheexploratoryfactoranalysisshowsfivefactorsthatdeterminethefinancialliteracyofthePortuguesepopulationandthewaytheymanetheirfinances,whichare(1)theperceptionoftheircurrentfinancialsituation;(2)planningandcontrollingpersonalfinances;(3)theperceptionofriskyfinancialassets;(4)theperceptionofrisk-freefinancialassets;and(5)sings.Thisresearchcontributestoexpandingscientificunderstandinginthefieldoffinancialliteracyandofferingsupporttothereviewoffinancialeducationpoliciesbyformulators,aimingtodeveloptoolsthathelpimprovethefinancialbehiorofthePortuguesepopulation.Fullarticle(ThisarticlebelongstotheSectionFinancialMarkets)12pes,234KiB OpenAccessArticleImpactofPainonActivitiesofDailyLivinginOlderAdults:ACross-SectionalAnalysisofKoreanLongitudinalStudyofing(KLoSA)byAmbrishSingh,SreelathaAkkala,MinakshiNayak,AnirudhKotlo,NareshPoondla,SyedRaza,JimStankovichandBennyAntonyGeriatrics2024,9(3),65;doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics-20May2024AbstractPain,particularlymusculoskeletal(MSK)andmulti-sitepain,significantlyimpactsactivitiesofdailyliving(ADL)intheelderly,leadingtoadeclineinoverallqualityoflife(QoL).Thisstudy,comprising7490participants,(meane:69±10;females:57%)fromthesixthwe[...]Readmore.Pain,particularlymusculoskeletal(MSK)andmulti-sitepain,significantlyimpactsactivitiesofdailyliving(ADL)intheelderly,leadingtoadeclineinoverallqualityoflife(QoL).Thisstudy,comprising7490participants,(meane:69±10;females:57%)fromthesixthweoftheKoreanLongitudinalStudyofing(KLoSA),aimedtoassesstheassociationbetweenself-reportedpainandADLimpairmentamongtheelderlypopulation.Notably,62%ofparticipantsreportedexperiencingpain,withbackpainbeingthemostprevalent(36%)andstomachachetheleast(0.39%).Amajority(61%)ofindividualsreportedMSK-relatedpain.Additionally,20%reportedpainatonesiteand0.03%experiencedpainat12sites.ADLimpairmentwasobservedin376(5.0%)participants.Comparedtothosewithoutpain,participantsreportingmoderateandseverepainhadhigheroddsofADLimpairment[2.31(95%CI,1.66–3.21)and2.98(95%CI,1.95–4.53),respectively].Painexperiencedintheshoulder,arm,wrist,back,hip,leg,andanklehadasignificantassociationwithADLimpairment,withORsrangingfrom2.66(95%CI,1.80–3.93;hippain)to1.36(95%CI1.07–1.72;backpain).Furthermore,multi-sitepainwasassociatedwithhigherADLimpairment[1–6sites:OR:1.49(95%CI,1.11–2.01);7–12sites:OR:7.16(95%CI,3.60–14.26)].ThesefindingsunderscoretheimportanceofaddressingMSKandmulti-sitepainthroughtargetedinterventions,potentiallyenhancingADLandcontributingtoanimprovedQoLamongtheelderlypopulation.Fullarticle(ThisarticlebelongstotheSectionGeriatricRheumatology)18pes,556KiB OpenAccessArticleSouthAfricanRealEstateInvestmentTrustsPreferTuesdaysbyOluwaseunDamilolaAjayiandEmmanuelKofiGuJ.RiskFinancialMan.2024,17(5),214;doi.org/10.3390/jrfm-20May2024AbstractThisstudyexaminestheday-of-the-weekeffectonthereturnsofdifferentclassificationsofSouthAfricanREITs.Ordinaryleastsquaresregression(OLS),generalizedautoregressiveconditionalheteroskedasticity(GARCH)(1,1)(2,1),andKruskal–Wallis(KW)testswereperformedondataobtainedfromtheIRESSExpertdatabasefrom[...]Readmore.Thisstudyexaminestheday-of-the-weekeffectonthereturnsofdifferentclassificationsofSouthAfricanREITs.Ordinaryleastsquaresregression(OLS),generalizedautoregressiveconditionalheteroskedasticity(GARCH)(1,1)(2,1),andKruskal–Wallis(KW)testswereperformedondataobtainedfromtheIRESSExpertdatabasefrom2013to2021.Wefoundstatisticaldifferencesintheday-of-the-weekeffectsforSAREITs;thebestdaytoinvestinofficeREITsisFriday,fordiversifiedREITsThursday,andforindustrialREITsFriday.Generally,WednesdaywasfoundtobetheleastprofitabledaytoinvestinallREITclassificationsbecauseithadtheleasteredailyreturn.TuesdayswerethemostprofitabledaysforallREITclassifications,withthehighesteredailyreturn.REITstradedthemostonFridays,whileREITstradedtheleastonMondays.ReturnswerethemostvolatileonMonday,whilevolumewastheleastvolatileonThursday.TheKWtestrevealedastatisticallysignificantdifferencebetweenthemedianreturnsacrossdaysoftheweek.Basedontheabove,profitabilityisexpressedonTuesdaysinSouthAfricanREITs.Byrecognizingtheday-of-the-weekeffect,investorscanbuyandsellSouthAfricanREITsmoreeffectively.Thisstudy,apartfrombeingthefirstinthecontextofSouthAfricanREITs,providesupdatedevidenceofthecontestedcalendaranomalyissues.Fullarticle(ThisarticlebelongstotheSectionFinancialMarkets)attachmentSupplementarymaterial:SupplementaryFile1(ZIP,99KiB)21pes,3708KiB OpenAccessReviewASystematicReviewofSocialSustainabilityIndicatorsforWaterUsealongthericulturalValueChainbyPascalinaMatohlangPilane,HenryJordaanandYonasT.BahtaHydrology2024,11(5),72;doi.org/10.3390/hydrology-20May2024AbstractTheconceptofsustainablewateruseservesasanindicatorofenvironmental,economic,andsocialpressureonfreshwaterresourcesglobally;however,thesocialelementofsustainabilityisnotwellresearchedwithinwater-consumptionstudies.Theobjectiveofthispaperistoconsiderthecurrent[...]Readmore.Theconceptofsustainablewateruseservesasanindicatorofenvironmental,economic,andsocialpressureonfreshwaterresourcesglobally;however,thesocialelementofsustainabilityisnotwellresearchedwithinwater-consumptionstudies.Theobjectiveofthispaperistoconsiderthecurrentstateoftheliteratureonsocialsustainabilityindicatorsforwateruseinriculture,aswellastodescribethesocial(people)elementofsustainabilityandestablishwateruseasanelementofsociety.Bycombiningviewpoints,systematicliteraturereviewsaddressresearchtopicswithastrengththatnosingleworkcanhe.From314paperspublishedbetween2013and2023,42paperswereeligibleforthereview.Thisworkemployedamixed-methodsapproachthatincludedasystematicreviewfollowingthe(PRISMA)framework,scientificmappingthroughVOSviewersoftware(version1.6.19),thematicreviews,andareviewofthegreyliteratureretrievedfromartificialintelligenceanddeeplearningtechnologies.Thefindingsindicatethatsocialsustainabilityindicatorsarebasedonenvironmentalindicators.Therearenosetstandardsforwhattoconsiderasasocialindicatorofwateruseorforhowtheseindictorscanbemeasured.Life-cycleassessmentandwater-footprintassessmentframeworksheshownprogresswithindicatorsthatcapturethesocialvalueofwatersuchasproductivity-reducingexternalities,equity,andjobspercubicmetreofwater.Fullarticle(ThisarticlebelongstotheSpecialIssueTheSustainableWaterManementandFoodProductionNexusforGlobalDevelopmentinthePast,PresentandFuture)9658;9660;ShowFiguresFigure1Figure2---Figure3---Figure4---Figure5---Figure627pes,1903KiB OpenAccessArticleComparativeBiomechanicalStabilityoftheFixationofDifferentMiniplatesinRestorativeLaminoplastyafterLaminectomy:AFiniteElementStudybyGuoyinLiu,WeiqianHuang,NannanLeng,PengHe,XinLi,MuliangLin,ZhonghuaLian,YongWang,JianminChenandWeihuaCaiBioengineering2024,11(5),519;doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering-20May2024AbstractAnovelH-shapedminiplate(HSM)wasspecificallydesignedforrestorativelaminoplastiestorestorepatients’posteriorelementsafterlaminectomies.Avalidatedfiniteelement(FE)modelofL2/4wasutilizedtocreatealaminectomymodel,aswellasthreerestorativelaminoplastymodelsbasedonthe[...]Readmore.AnovelH-shapedminiplate(HSM)wasspecificallydesignedforrestorativelaminoplastiestorestorepatients’posteriorelementsafterlaminectomies.Avalidatedfiniteelement(FE)modelofL2/4wasutilizedtocreatealaminectomymodel,aswellasthreerestorativelaminoplastymodelsbasedonthefixationofdifferentminiplatesafteralaminectomy(theRL-HSMmodel,theRL-LSMmodel,andtheRL-THMmodel).Thebiomechanicaleffectsofmotionanddisplacementonalaminectomyandrestorativelaminoplastywiththreedifferentshapesforthefixationofminiplateswerecomparedunderthesamemechanicalconditions.Thisstudyaimedtovalidatethebiomechanicalstability,efficacy,andfeasibilityofarestorativelaminoplastywiththefixationofminiplatespostlaminectomy.Thelaminectomymodeldemonstratedthegreatestincreaseinmotionanddisplacement,especiallyinaxialrotation,followedbyextension,flexion,andlateralbending.Therestorativelaminoplastywasexceptionalinpreservingthemotionanddisplacementofsurgicalsegmentswhencomparedtotheintactstate.Thispreservationwasparticularlyevidentinlateralbendingandflexion/extension,withaslightmaintenanceefficacyobservedinaxialrotation.Comparedtothelaminectomymodel,therestorativelaminoplastieswiththeinvestigatedminiplatesdemonstratedamotion-limitingeffectforalldirectionsandresultedinexcellentstabilitylevelsunderaxialrotationandflexion/extension.ThegreatestreductioninmotionanddisplacementwasobservedintheRL-HSMmodel,followedbytheRL-LSMmodelandthentheRL-THMmodel.Whencomparingthefixationofdifferentminiplatesinrestorativelaminoplasties,theHSMswerefoundtobesuperiortotheLSMsandTHMsinmaintainingpostoperativestability,particularlyinaxialrotation.Theevidencesuggeststhatarestorativelaminoplastywiththefixationofminiplatesismoreeffectivethanaconventionallaminectomyduetothebiomechanicaleffectsofrestoringposteriorelements,whichhelpspatientsregainmotionandlimitloaddisplacementresponsesinthespineaftersurgery,especiallyinaxialrotationandflexion/extension.Additionally,ourevaluationinthisresearchstudycouldbenefitfromfurtherresearchandprovideamethodologicalandmodelingbasisforthedesignandoptimizationofrestorativelaminoplasties.Fullarticle(ThisarticlebelongstotheSpecialIssueMechanobiologyinBiomedicalEngineering)25pes,2107KiB OpenAccessArticleExploringChitosanLactateasaMultifunctionalAdditive:EnhancingQualityandExtendingShelfLifeofWholeWheatBreadbyPratikSingh,VikasYad,DebluSahu,KrishanKumar,DomanKim,DengYang,SivaramanJayaraman,MaciejJarzębski,MarekWieruszewskiandKunalPalFoods2024,13(10),1590;doi.org/10.3390/foods-20May2024AbstractTheshelflifeofwholewheatbread(WWB)significantlyimpactsitsfreshnessandoverallquality.Thisresearchinvestigatedtheimpactofchitosanlactate(CL)onvariouscharacteristicsinfluencingtheshelflifeofWWB,includingitsphysical,chemical,textural,antimicrobial,andsensoryattributes.These[...]Readmore.Theshelflifeofwholewheatbread(WWB)significantlyimpactsitsfreshnessandoverallquality.Thisresearchinvestigatedtheimpactofchitosanlactate(CL)onvariouscharacteristicsinfluencingtheshelflifeofWWB,includingitsphysical,chemical,textural,antimicrobial,andsensoryattributes.Thesecharacteristicswereevaluatedbyconductingvariousexperimentssuchasphysicalinspection,moisture,impedance,swelling,color,texture,FTIR,microbiological,andsensoryanalysis.CLwithdifferentconcentrationswasincorporatedintoWWBformulations:P0.0(0.0%w/wCL,control),P0.5(0.5%w/wCL),P1.0(1.0%w/wCL),P2.0(2.0%w/wCL),andP3.0(3.0%w/wCL).TheinclusionofCLpromotedtheMaillardreaction(MR)comparedtoP0.0.ThepromotionofMRresultedintheformationofashiniercrust,whichincreasedastheCLcontentwasincreased.P0.5comprisedlarge-sizedporesandexhibitedincreasedloafheight.CL-containingWWBformulationsshowedanincreasedmoisturecontentanddecreasedimpedancevaluescomparedtothecontrol.FTIRanalysisofP0.5demonstratedtheenhancedinteractionandbondingofwatermolecules.P0.5demonstratedoptimaltextural,colorimetric,andantimicrobialpropertiescomparedtootherformulations.ThesensoryattributesofWWBsremainunchangeddespiteCLaddition.Inconclusion,P0.5exhibitedoptimalcharacteristicsassociatedwithbetterqualityandprolongedshelflife.Fullarticle(ThisarticlebelongstotheSectionGrain)4pes,312KiB OpenAccessEditorialGreenExtractionandValorizationofBy-ProductsfromFoodProcessingbySelinŞahinandEbruKurtulbaşFoods2024,13(10),1589;doi.org/10.3390/foods-20May2024Abstractro-industrialvalorizationhasbeenahottopicrecentlysinceitleadstoresourceconservationandiseconomicallyandenvironmentallyvaluable[...]Fullarticle(ThisarticlebelongstotheSpecialIssueGreenExtractionandValorizationofBy-ProductsfromFoodProcessing)13pes,478KiB OpenAccessArticleEffectofOverripeningonthePhysico-ChemicalandSensoryCharacteristicsofBoneless,Salt-ReducedIberianDry-CuredHambyNoeliaHernándezCorreas,AdelaAbellán,JoséMaríaCayuela,CindyBande-DeLeónandLuisTejadaFoods2024,13(10),1588;doi.org/10.3390/foods-20May2024AbstractTheaimofthisstudywastoevaluatetheeffectofextendedmaturationandtemperatureincreaseonthephysico-chemical,biochemical,instrumentalcolorandtexture,sensory,andacceptabilityparametersofcuredandbonelessIberianhams.Giventhelimitedknowledgeinthisarea,ourobjective[...]Readmore.TheaPor favor, espere. Nuvemimofthisstudywastoevaluatetheeffectofextendedmaturationandtemperatureincreaseonthephysico-chemical,biochemical,instrumentalcolorandtexture,sensory,andacceptabilityparametersofcuredandbonelessIberianhams.Giventhelimitedknowledgeinthisarea,ourobjectivewastodevelopahamwithenhancedproteolysis,potentiallyleadingtoincreasedbioactivepeptidegenerationandsuperiorsensorycharacteristicscomparedtosalt-reducedcounterparts.Toachievethis,abatchofhamscuredupto38%lossat30°Candtwobatchescuredupto42%lossat30°Cand36°Cwereevaluated.Resultsshowedthattheincreaseinprocessingtimeandtemperaturesignificantlyenhanced(p<0.05)hamproteolysisandaminoacidcontentwithoutadverselyaffectingitstexture.Nosignificantdifferenceswereobservedininstrumentaltextureparametersorsensoryattributesasevaluatedbyconsumers.Theseprocessingconditionsalsoincreasedthecontentoffreeaminoacids,improvingtheproductquality.Overall,theseprocessingmodificationsresultedinhamswithexcellentsensoryacceptabilityandenhancedbioactivepotentialdespitethesaltreduction.Fullarticle(ThisarticlebelongstotheSpecialIssueNovelApproachestoImprovingQualityandSafetyinMeatandMeatProducts)15pes,518KiB OpenAccessArticleNext-GenerationDualTransceiverFSOCommunicationSystemforHigh-SpeedTrainsinNeomSmartCitybyYehiaElsawy,AyshahS.Alatawi,MohamedAbaza,AzzaMoawadandEl-HadiM.gounePhotonics2024,11(5),483;doi.org/10.3390/photonics-20May2024AbstractSmartcitieslikeNeomrequireefficientandreliabletransportationsystemstosupporttheirvisionofsustainableandinterconnectedurbanenvironments.High-speedtrains(HSTs)playacrucialroleinconnectingdifferentareasofthecityandfacilitatingseamlessmobility.However,toensureuninterruptedcommunication[...]Readmore.SmartcitieslikeNeomrequireefficientandreliabletransportationsystemstosupporttheirvisionofsustainableandinterconnectedurbanenvironments.High-speedtrains(HSTs)playacrucialroleinconnectingdifferentareasofthecityandfacilitatingseamlessmobility.However,toensureuninterruptedcommunicationalongtheraillines,advancedcommunicationsystemsareessentialtoexpandthecovererangeofeachbasestation(BS)whilereducingthehandoverfrequency.Thispaperpresentsthedualtransceiverfreespaceoptical(FSO)communicationsystemasasolutiontoachievetheseobjectivesintheoperationalenvironmentofHSTsinNeomcity.Ourchannelmodelincorporateslog-normal(LN)andgamma–gamma(GG)distributionstorepresentchannelimpairmentsandatmosphericturbulenceinthecity.Furthermore,weintegratedthesidingloopmodel,providingvaluableinsightsintothesysteminreal-worldscenarios.Toassessthesystem’sperformance,weformulatedthereceivedsignal-to-noiseratio(SNR)ofthenetworkunderassumedfadingconditions.Additionally,weanalyzedthesystem’sbiterrorrate(BER)analyticallyandthroughMonteCarlosimulation.Acomparativeanalysiswithreconfigurableintelligentsurfaces(RIS)andrelay-assistedFSOcommunicationsshowsthesuperiorcovereareaandefficiencyofthedualtransceivermodel.Asignificantreductionofupto76%and99%inthenumberofrequiredBSscomparedtoRISandrelay,respectively,isobserved.Thisreductionleadstofewerhandoversandlowercapitalexpenditure(CAPEX)costs.Fullarticle(ThisarticlebelongstotheSpecialIssueNext-GenerationFree-SpaceOpticalCommunicationTechnology)17pes,5749KiB OpenAccessArticleResearchontheInteractionMechanismofMulti-FracturePropationinHydraulicFracturingbyLin-PengZhang,TuanGu,BinLiandPengZhengProcesses2024,12(5),1040;doi.org/10.3390/pr-20May2024AbstractDuringthehydraulic-fracturingprocess,stressinterferenceoccursamongmultiplewellsandfractures,potentiallyaffectingthetrajectoryofhydraulicfracturepropation.Previousstudieshelargelyoverlookedtheinfluenceofproppantsupportstressesonthetrajectoriesoffracturepropation.Thispaperestablishesamathematicalmodel,[...]Readmore.Duringthehydraulic-fracturingprocess,stressinterferenceoccursamongmultiplewellsandfractures,potentiallyaffectingthetrajectoryofhydraulicfracturepropation.Previousstudieshelargelyoverlookedtheinfluenceofproppantsupportstressesonthetrajectoriesoffracturepropation.Thispaperestablishesamathematicalmodel,groundedintheboundaryelementmethod,designedtocomputethepropationofmultiplefractures,consideringbothproppantsupportonthefracturesurfaceanddynamicperturbationswithinthelocalstressfield.Thefindingsofthisresearchrevealthatthestressfieldinducedbyhydraulicfracturingexhibitsdynamicevolutioncharacteristics,necessitatingacomprehensivestudyofthefractureinitiationandextensionacrosstheentirefracturingtimedomain.Theeffectoftheresidualfracturewidthunderproppantactionontheinsitustressfieldcannotbeignored.Duringsimultaneousfracturing,hydraulicfracturesareinclinedtopropateinthedirectionofthemaximumhorizontalprincipalstress,particularlyastheinsitudifferentialstressescalates.Stgeredfracturingbetweenwellshasbeenproventobemoreeffectivethanhead-to-headfracturing.Simplyincreasingthewellspacingcannotsolvetheproblemofinter-wellfractureinterference.Inzipperfracturing,adjustingthefracturingsequencecaninhibitthefractureintersectionsbetweenwells,therebycontrollingthetrajectoryoffracturepropation.Theaforementionedresearchhasconsiderablesignificanceinguidingthecontroloffracturemorphologyduringhydraulic-fracturingprocesses.Fullarticle(ThisarticlebelongstotheSpecialIssueNumericalSimulationsofFracturinginPetroleumEngineering)9658;9660;ShowFiguresFigure1Figure2---Figure3---Figure4---Figure4Cont.---Figure5---Figure6---Figure7---Figure8---Figure9---Figure10---Figure11---Figure1218pes,3746KiB OpenAccessFeaturePaperArticleRobustForestFireDetectionMethodforSurveillanceSystemsBasedonYouOnlyLookOnceVersion8andTransferLearningApproachesbyNodirYunusov,BappyMDSifulIslam,AkmalbekAbdusalomovandWooseongKimProcesses2024,12(5),1039;doi.org/10.3390/pr-20May2024AbstractForestfiresheemergedasasignificantglobalconcern,exacerbatedbybothglobalwarmingandtheexpandinghumanpopulation.Severaladverseoutcomescanresultfromthis,includingclimaticshiftsandgreenhouseeffects.Theramificationsoffireincidentsextendwidely,impactinghumancommunities,financial[...]Readmore.Forestfiresheemergedasasignificantglobalconcern,exacerbatedbybothglobalwarmingandtheexpandinghumanpopulation.Severaladverseoutcomescanresultfromthis,includingclimaticshiftsandgreenhouseeffects.Theramificationsoffireincidentsextendwidely,impactinghumancommunities,financialresources,thenaturalenvironment,andglobalwarming.Therefore,timelyfiredetectionisessentialforquickandeffectiveresponseandnottoendangerforestresources,animallife,andthehumaneconomy.ThisstudyintroducesaforestfiredetectionapproachutilizingtransferlearningwiththeYOLOv8(YouOnlyLookOnceversion8)pretrainingmodelandtheTranSDetmodel,whichintegratesanimproveddeeplearningalgorithm.TransferLearningbasedonpre-trainedYoloV8enhancesafastandaccurateobjectdetectiongregatewiththeTranSDetstructuretodetectsmallfires.Furthermore,totrainthemodel,wecollected5200imesandperformedaugmentationtechniquesfordata,suchasrotation,scaling,andchangingdueandsaturation.Smallfirescanbedetectedfromadistancebyoursuggestedmodelbothduringthedayandatnight.Objectswithsimilaritiescanleadtofalsepredictions.However,thedatasetaugmentationtechniquereducesthefeasibility.Theexperimentalresultsprovethatourproposedmodelcansuccessfullyachieve98%accuracytominimizecatastrophicincidents.Inrecentyears,theadvancementofdeeplearningtechniqueshasenhancedsafetyandsecureenvironments.Lastly,weconductedacomparativeanalysisofourmethod’sperformancebasedonwidelyusedevaluationmetricstovalidatetheachievedresults.Fullarticle(ThisarticlebelongstotheSpecialIssueIndustrialProcessOperationStateSensingandPerformanceOptimization)16pes,1481KiB OpenAccessArticleStructuralAnalysisofThermalDiffusionandNon-UniformTemperatureDistributionalongtheSidewallThicknessofSTS316LduringGasTungstenArcButtWeldingbyTaehyungNa,Gwang-HoJeong,KiyoungKim,YongdeogKim,JunsungBae,SeonminKim,Sang-HyunAhn,Seung-HoonBae,Sang-KyoKimandDae-WonChoProcesses2024,12(5),1038;doi.org/10.3390/pr-20May2024AbstractThisstudyinvestigatedhowweldingaffectsthethermaldeformationofsquarecellsproducedforcasks,whicharedrystorecontainersforspentnuclearfuel.WeaimedtominimizestructuraldeformationbyutilizingSTS316Lasthematerialforthesquarecells.Weexploreda[...]Readmore.Thisstudyinvestigatedhowweldingaffectsthethermaldeformationofsquarecellsproducedforcasks,whicharedrystorecontainersforspentnuclearfuel.WeaimedtominimizestructuraldeformationbyutilizingSTS316Lasthematerialforthesquarecells.Weexploredamethodofsubdividingthesquarecellsandjoiningthemthroughbuttwelding.Keepingtheupperplatethicknessconstant,GTAbuttweldingwasconductedwhilevaryingthecolumn’swallthickness,followedbymeasurementwithalaservisionsensor.Theheatconductionandthermalstrainwerethencalculatedusingafiniteelementanalysis(FEM).Bothexperimentalandanalyticalresultsconfirmedthattherewassignificantthermaldeformationinthecasesofthick-walledcolumnsduetovariationsinheatconductiondistribution,withtheresultingdeformationpatternsdependingonthickness.Fullarticle(ThisarticlebelongstotheSectionManufacturingProcessesandSystems)attachmentSupplementarymaterial:SupplementaryFile1(ZIP,228KiB)18pes,2929KiB OpenAccessArticleAssessmentofAutoregulationoftheCerebralCirculationduringAcuteLungInjuryinaNeonatalPorcineModelbyAsliMemisoglu,MarthaHinton,YasserElsayed,RuthGrahamandShyamalaDakshinamurtiChildren2024,11(5),611;doi.org/10.3390/children-20May2024AbstractInneonateswithacutelunginjury(ALI),targetingloweroxygenationsaturationsissuggestedtolimitoxygentoxicitywhilemaintainingvitalorganfunction.Althoughthresholdsforcerebralautoregulationarestudiedforthemanementofprematureinfants,theimpactofhypoxiaonhemodynamics,tissueoxygen[...]Readmore.Inneonateswithacutelunginjury(ALI),targetingloweroxygenationsaturationsissuggestedtolimitoxygentoxicitywhilemaintainingvitalorganfunction.Althoughthresholdsforcerebralautoregulationarestudiedforthemanementofprematureinfants,theimpactofhypoxiaonhemodynamics,tissueoxygenconsumptionandextractionisnotwellunderstoodinterminfantswithALI.Weexaminedhemodynamics,cerebralautoregulationandfractionaloxygenextraction,asmeasuredbynear-infraredspectroscopy(NIRS)andbloodgases,inaneonatalporcineoleicacidinjurymodelofmoderateALI.WehypothesizedthatinALIanimals,cerebraloxygenextractionwouldbeincreasedtoagreaterdegreethankidneyorgutoxygenextractionasindicativeofthebrain’sadaptiveeffortstoincreasecerebraloxygenextractionattheexpenseofsplanchnicendorgans.Fifteenanesthetized,ventilated5-day-oldneonatalpigletsweredividedintomoderatelunginjurybytreatmentwitholeicacidorcontrol(shaminjection).ThedegreeoflunginjurywasquantifiedatbaselineandafterestablishmentofALIbybloodgases,ventilationparametersandcalculatedoxygenationdeficit,hemodynamicindicesbyechocardiographyandlunginjuryscorebyultrasound.PaCO2wasmaintainedconstantduringventilation.Cerebral,renalandgutoxygenationwasdeterminedbyNIRSduringstepwisedecreasesininspiredoxygenfrom50%to21%,correlatedwithPaO2andPvO2;changesinfractionaloxygenextraction(ΔFOE)werecalculatedfromNIRSandfromregionalbloodgassamples.Theproportionofcerebralautoregulationimpairmentattributabletobloodpressure,andtohypoxemia,wascalculatedfromautoregulationnomograms.ALImanifestedashypoxemiawithincreasingintrapulmonaryshuntfraction,decreasedlungcomplianceandincreasedresistance,andmarkedincreaseinlungultrasoundscore.Brain,gutandrenalNIRS,obtainedfromprobesplacedovertheanteriorskull,centralabdomenandflank,respectively,correlatedwithconcurrentSVC(brain)orIVC(gut,renal)PvO2andSvO2.CerebralautoregulationwasimpairedafterALIasafunctionofbloodpressureatallFiO2steps,butpredominantlybyhypoxemiaatFiO2<40%.CerebralΔFOEwashigherinALIanimalsatallFiO2steps.WeconcludethatinananimalmodelofneonatalALI,cerebrovascularbloodflowregulationisprimarilydependentonoxygenation.ThereisnotadefinedoxygenationthresholdbelowwhichcerebralautoregulationisimpairedinALI.CerebraloxygenextractionisenhancedinALI,reflectingcompensationforexhaustedcerebralautoregulationduetothedegreeofhypoxemiaand/orhypotension,therebyprotectingainsttissuehypoxia.Fullarticle(ThisarticlebelongstotheSectionPediatricNeonatology)9658;9660;ShowFiguresFigure1Figure2---Figure3---Figure4---Figure5---Figure6MoreArticles...OpenAccessJournalsAcousticsActaMicrobiologicaHellenica(AMH)ActuatorsAdministrativeSciencesAdolescentsAdvancesinRespiratoryMedicine(ARM)AerobiologyAerospacericultureriEngineeringrochemicalsronomyAIAirAlgorithmsAllergiesAlloysAnalyticaAnalyticsAnatomiaAnesthesiaResearchAnimalsAntibioticsAntibodiesAntioxidantsAppliedBiosciencesAppliedMechanicsAppliedMicrobiologyAppliedNanoAppliedSciencesAppliedSystemInnovation(ASI)AppliedChemAppliedMathAquacultureJournalArchitectureArthropodaArtsAstronomyAtmosphereAtomsAudiologyResearchAutomationAxiomsBacteriaBatteriesBehioralSciencesBeveresBigDataandCognitiveComputing(BDCC)BioChemBioengineeringBiologicsBiologyBiologyandLifeSciencesForumBiomassBiomechanicsBioMedBiomedicinesBioMedInformaticsBiomimeticsBiomoleculesBiophysicaBiosensorsBioTechBirdsBlockchainsBrainSciencesBuildingsBusinessesCCancersCardiogeneticsCatalystsCellsCeramicsChallengesChemEngineeringChemistryChemistryProceedingsChemosensorsChildrenChipsCivilEngCleanTechnologies(CleanTechnol.)ClimateClinicalandTranslationalNeuroscience(CTN)ClinicsandPracticeClocks&SleepCoastsCoatingsColloidsandInterfacesColorantsCommoditiesComplicationsCompoundsComputationComputerSciences&MathematicsForumComputersCondensedMatterConservationConstructionMaterialsCorrosionandMaterialsDegradation(CMD)CosmeticsCOVIDCropsCryptographyCrystalsCurrentIssuesinMolPor 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